Shop Mobile More Submit  Join Login
Tyrannosaurus Skull Comparison by Dennonyx Tyrannosaurus Skull Comparison by Dennonyx

56 specimens of Tyrannosaurus are known (57 if we include Manospondylus holotype).

30 of them are from Montana, 12 from South Dakota, 4 from Wyoming, 3 from Alberta (Canada), 2 from North Dakota, 2 from New Mexico, one from Texas, one from Idaho, one from Colorado and one from Saskatchewan.


Among these 57 specimens, only 9 have preserved a complete ( >90% ) skull. Two of them are not ontogenetically mature (Nanotyrannus) so we can say that 7 complete skulls of grown Tyrannosaurs are known. Another dozen of incomplete skulls (among whose the holotypic one) is included among the 57.


AMNH 5027 was the first fully complete Tyrannosaurus skull to be found.

AMNH 973 is the holotypic skull. It is also decoded as CM 9380. The overall length of the animal at its death was of about 12 meters.

RSM 2523.8 is the specimen known as “Scotty”.

RTMP 81.6.1 is the specimen known as “Black Beauty”.

BHI 3033 is the specimen known as “Stan”.

FMNH PR2081 is the specimen known as “Sue”.

BMRP 2002.4.1. is the specimen known as “Jane” and referred to the onto-taxon Nanotyrannus, whose holotype is represented by CMNH 7541.

MOR 1125 is the specimen known as “B-rex”.

MOR 980 is the specimen known as “Peck's rex” or “Rigby's rex”.


It's to point out that in this panoply all taphonomic distortions and side effects that the skulls have undergone were interpreted and corrected (for example many Tyrannosaurus skulls show further angular and surangular openings around the small mandibular fenestra which have been created by bonephage parassites). The caudal surangular foramen is not illustrated also for this reason, because it could be confused with the other post-mortem forames (and also because it was too small to be reported accurately).

The skulls are not to scale.


You can find my dinosaur skull nomenclature guide here: dennonyx.deviantart.com/art/Di…


Moreover, here you can find an accurate paper about tyrannosaurids skull anatomy (mainly about albertosaurins): www.app.pan.pl/archive/publish…

Add a Comment:
 
:icontaqresu650:
Taqresu650 Featured By Owner Apr 28, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
If you ever get the chance to visit the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman Montana, you should. It's run my Jack Horner (who's famous for his paleontology, and he's worked on all the Jurassic Park movies). They've just released a new Tyrant Kings exhibit. www.youtube.com/watch?v=TI8uer…
Reply
:iconkeehsay:
Keehsay Featured By Owner Apr 26, 2016
I'm so happy you didnt add feathers to these skulls. also colored skulls look awesome!!1
Reply
:iconkeehsay:
Keehsay Featured By Owner Apr 26, 2016
T-Rex rulez.
Reply
:iconmedenadragon:
Medenadragon Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2016
Do you know which specimens were found where? I'm wondering if their may be region based morphological differences.
Reply
:iconyumezaka:
Yumezaka Featured By Owner Dec 27, 2015  Professional Filmographer
Wow! Great data! Thanks for sharing!!
Reply
:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Dec 7, 2015
The immature ones are most likely nanotyrannus skulls.
Reply
:iconsekley:
Sekley Featured By Owner Dec 7, 2015
Don't reply to this ignorant person. He refuses to admit that so far Carr's research and others are right. Jane and the other " Nanotyrannus" skulls are still teenage Tyrannosaurus.
Reply
:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2015
What? Sekley I am starting to get tired of you. You just keep using the fallacy of the appeal to authority. Only because they did researches it does not mean the researches are right. Jane had unfused bones and this is why many think she is a juvenile T. rex, but what about all those nanotyrannus skeletons that had fused bones?

Unless you start to show arguments and/or show WHY these authorities have such theory, shut the fuck up.
Reply
:iconsekley:
Sekley Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2015
Uh, they know that Jane is a young T. rex as her phenotype matches the growth series typical of tyrannosaurs only the jump from childhood to adulthood is a much more stark contrast in T. rex. All tyrannosaurs start off thin and lanky, but grow bulky. It's been seen in Tarbosaurus and in Gorgosaurus. Why else do you think T. rex had such a massive growth curve during puberty even compare to its relatives? Because lanky teens like Jane had a lot more to grow into than let's say Tarbosaurus teens did. Plus those fused bones are just that, fused. Even teenage animals have a mixture of fused and unfused bones. Those "Nanotyrannus" specimens are no different. Because Jane fits into the parameters I have listed and were given in Carr's research, Jane is define a teenage T. rex. There could be such a thing as a Nanotyrannus, but the adult version much more likely resembles a midget adult tyrannosaur than the gangly teens.
Reply
:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Dec 9, 2015
And what about all the characteristics that we find in Jane that are different from T. rexes? Jane has some horn like structures above her fenestrae while T. rex does not have this. Young individuals show bigger eye orbits, but they also have the same shape as adults', but that is not the case of Jane. While her orbits are not bigger in proportion to the skull, her orbits also have a completely different shape. Nanotyrannus also shows completely different teeth: while T. rex had thick teeth to bite trough bones, nanotyrannus had thin teeth to cut trough flesh. If they were the same animal, such difference in the shape of the teeth would not be seen. Also T. rex specimens show a more curved jaw right below the anatorbital fenestrae and a more straight jaw "design" below the nostrils. But what we find in Jane is the complete opposite (more straight jaw "design" below the anatorbital fenestrae and more curved jaws in the region below the nostrils). You can compare with modern animals and you will see that the overhaul jaw shape is almost equal in young and adult individuals.
Also while T. rex snouts are tinner than the rest of the skull, nanotyrannus snouts have almost the same thickness as the rest of the skull.

I have heard about the theory that alioramus was a young tarbosaurus. Though alioramus also shows different orbit shape, horn like structures that tarbosaurus does not have and we also have the "snout thickness problem" in this case.
Reply
:iconsekley:
Sekley Featured By Owner Edited Dec 9, 2015
Other than than the eye orbits, teeth, and snout thickness, I am not seeing what you're seeing. I am assuming you looked at skeletal mounts again for reference. If you check let's say Scott Hartman's skeletal drawings, I don't see these bumps above the fenestrae or jaw curvature.

As for the teeth, all tyrannosaurs had this trait initially. In fact it's not uncommon for baby dinosaurs to have different tooth shapes than the adults. This suggests that the babies ate different food than the adults and thus didn't compete with each other for the same resources. As for snout thickness, it's not uncommon for tyrannosaurs to grow like this. Tarbosaurus and Gorgosaurus were the same way.
Reply
:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Dec 9, 2015
Actually I looked at this www.oucom.ohiou.edu/dbms-witme…

Actually I was wrong about this "snout thickness problem", in this aspect they are similar. But nanotyrannus has a completely different shape on a certain bone that is located right above the temporal fenestrae and between the supratemporal fenestrae.

If nanotyrannus was a young T. rex, it should have the same tooth shape. When we talk about differences between the skeletons of young and adult individuals, dinosaurs can be comapred to almost every other vertebrate.

Actually Scott puts these differences: img09.deviantart.net/124d/i/20…
Reply
:iconsekley:
Sekley Featured By Owner Dec 9, 2015
Yeah and Hartman's reconstructions show the similarities between the teenagers and adults so much better than those poorly made mounts. Plus as I said, tyrannosaurs were among the dinosaurs where the babies and teenagers had a different tooth shape from the adult.
Reply
(1 Reply)
:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner Oct 8, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Great comparisons!
Reply
:iconzopteryx:
ZoPteryx Featured By Owner Sep 30, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Incredible how diverse the skulls of this single taxon is!  "Scotty" looks just plain odd!  I wonder how the skulls of Tarbosaurus would compare...
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 30, 2015  Student General Artist
"Scotty" looks vaguely like an allosaur but maybe the way it fossilized has influenced on that.
Reply
:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 29, 2015  Hobbyist
Good job..
Reply
:icongrisador:
grisador Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015
Nanotyrannus ? It's a young Rex ?
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015  Student General Artist
According to several paleontologists (Horner, Cau) Tyrannosaurus and Nanotyrannus are two different ontogenetic steps of the same genus. 


The same also could be applied for other theropods, for example:

Banji and Luoyanggia
Philovenator and Linhevenator
Jianchangosaurus and Beipiaosaurus
Bambiraptor and Saurornitholestes
Reply
:icongrisador:
grisador Featured By Owner Edited Sep 30, 2015
So these are on the list; including Nano; actually are young\adolescent dinosaurs... This discovery could be revolutionary at dinosaur\paleontoloy scale; almost nothing known about young-adolescent dinosaur biology.
If that's the case; young Rex'es seems to differ from adults greatly. They were much more agile, light-weight, fast & possibly Prococial. :o
But National Geographic do a Documentary about Nannotyrannus defending its different species; do you know it or watch it ?
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 30, 2015  Student General Artist
Actually, there is still a debate on this topic (it's somewhat like Torosaurus and Triceratops issue) but popular and divulgative culture are easily wrong.
Reply
:icongrisador:
grisador Featured By Owner Edited Oct 2, 2015
It Still continues ? That's surprising.


True :nod:
Even the documentaries thought
Reply
:iconthedinorocker:
thedinorocker Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015
Il top sarebbe stato averli in scala tra di loro, ma questo è indubbiamente n lavoro degno di nota!
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015  Student General Artist
Lo so però sarebbe stata una doppia fatica e sinceramente proprio non mi andava ahahahahah anche perché già per farlo così ci ho speso molta concentrazione, tempo ed energia.
Reply
:iconraptorkilfan:
Raptorkilfan Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Student General Artist
Wait you belive the nanotyrannus is a young Rex theory?
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Student General Artist
According to several paleontologists (Horner, Cau) Tyrannosaurus and Nanotyrannus are two different ontogenetic steps of the same genus. 


The same also could be applied for other theropods, for example:

Banji and Luoyanggia
Philovenator and Linhevenator
Jianchangosaurus and Beipiaosaurus
Bambiraptor and Saurornitholestes
Reply
:iconraptorkilfan:
Raptorkilfan Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015  Student General Artist
And that is very true.
Reply
:iconyemayema:
YemaYema Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Professional General Artist
Wow, I never imagined they would vary this much. Amazing! :D
Reply
:iconfishfossil:
FishFossil Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Never realized they varied THIS much, wow.
Reply
:icondinodc98:
Dinodc98 Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist Artist
I can never draw trex right because of the amount of variation in different individuals, but this might help. 😉
Reply
:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Edited Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I knew there was a lot of intraspecific variety in Tyrannosaurs skull shape, but I never had an idea about it being this much. Really awesome!
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Student General Artist
The differences are possibly also amplified by taphonomical factors, but when you've got a well-sampled taxon intraspecific variability is always noticeable (just think about Psittacosaurus, Protoceratops, Triceratops, Lambeosaurus, Gryposaurus etc.)
Reply
:iconleopold002:
Leopold002 Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist Writer
57 specimens you say!?!
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Student General Artist
Yep. Here you are the full list www3.sympatico.ca/dinoguy/tyra…
Reply
:iconlythroa:
LythroA Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
This is helpful. This is VERY helpful ;)
Reply
:icondennonyx:
Dennonyx Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Student General Artist
And I'm really glad of being helpful :)
Reply
Add a Comment:
 
×
  • Art Print
  • Canvas
  • Photo
Download JPG 4704 × 6808




Details

Submitted on
September 27, 2015
Image Size
12.2 MB
Resolution
4704×6808
Link
Thumb
Embed

Stats

Views
3,743 (2 today)
Favourites
148 (who?)
Comments
45
Downloads
30
×